March 1, 2024

Lukmaan IAS

A Blog for IAS Examination

mRNA

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TAG: GS 3: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

THE CONTEXT: mRNA which has the capability to act as a versatile and customizable tool in protein production has revolutionized medicine.

EXPLANATION:

  • From vaccines to potential therapies for various diseases, its adaptability, ease of customization, and potential for personalized treatments present a promising frontier in healthcare.
  • It marks a paradigm shift toward more effective, tailored, and potentially low-risk treatments for a myriad of conditions.

Understanding mRNA and Its Role in Cells

  • DNA and Protein Production:
    • DNA acts like a comprehensive cookbook containing various recipes (genes) to produce proteins, crucial for normal cellular functions.
    • When cells need to produce a protein, they don’t directly utilize the DNA; instead, they create a messenger RNA (mRNA), serving as a copy of the recipe.
    • This mRNA carries the instructions (coded in a language made of four nucleotide building blocks – A, U, C, G) necessary for protein synthesis.
    • Cells dedicate a significant amount of energy to maintain and utilize these proteins, recognizing, employing, and subsequently degrading mRNA once its function is fulfilled.
  • Mutations and Disease:
    • Mutations in DNA can distort or eliminate specific mRNA recipes, resulting in errors in critical proteins, thereby causing diseases or disorders.

The Potential of mRNA as Medicine

  • Customization:
    • Scientists can easily craft mRNA recipes for various proteins, either by creating entirely new recipes or modifying existing ones to produce slight protein variations, catering to individual patient needs.
  • Scalability:
    • The process of producing mRNA in laboratories is scalable.
    • Once scientists understand the basic recipe creation, they can generate numerous variations efficiently.
  • Adaptability and Adjustability:
    • mRNA drugs offer flexibility in dosing as they’re not permanent within cells, allowing for easy alterations in dosage according to the patient’s requirements.

mRNA Vaccines: Revolutionizing Disease Prevention

  • COVID-19 Vaccines and Beyond:
    • The mRNA vaccines for COVID-19, such as those by Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech, marked a groundbreaking milestone.
    • These vaccines instruct cells to produce a spike protein from the virus, prompting the immune system to recognize and create antibodies against it.
    • The adaptability of mRNA allowed for swift adjustments in vaccine recipes to combat new viral variants.
  • Expanding Vaccine Applications:
    • Ongoing clinical trials explore mRNA-based vaccines for various illnesses like seasonal flu, herpes, respiratory syncytial virus, norovirus, Lyme disease, Zika, and shingles.

mRNA Therapies in Disease Treatment

  • Targeting Cancer:
    • mRNA treatments for cancer function akin to vaccines, training the immune system to identify and attack cancer cells.
    • These treatments involve mRNA recipes designed based on mutations commonly found in certain tumours.
    • Personalized medicine approaches involve tailoring mRNA treatments by sequencing a patient’s tumour genes, aiming for specificity and effectiveness.

The Future Potential of mRNA-Based Medicine

  • Diverse Therapeutic Applications:
    • Scientists are investigating mRNA’s potential in treating a wide array of diseases beyond infectious illnesses and cancer.
    • These include heart disease, neurodegenerative conditions, bone loss, and others.
    • The ability to deliver corrected mRNA recipes to cells offers promise in correcting protein-related issues causing various diseases.
  • Promising Applications:
    • Early-stage studies hint at potential mRNA treatments for conditions like propionic acidaemia and diabetic wound healing, showing the capacity for mRNA to serve as a foundation for personalized, effective, and low side-effect therapies.

SOURCE: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/mrna-vaccines-cancer-personalised-medicine/article67650001.ece/amp/

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