March 1, 2024

Lukmaan IAS

A Blog for IAS Examination




THE CONTEXT: At COP28, the global community convened to address the critical issue of global warming. The conference was held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from November 30 to December 3, 2023, and brought together parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change to assess progress on the Paris Agreement and to chart a course of action for the future.


  • This climate summit involved representatives from nearly 200 nations, along with business leaders, climate scientists, Indigenous Peoples, journalists, and various experts.
  • The Global Stocktake, a process assessing progress in curbing global warming since the inception of the Paris Agreement in 2015, is a pivotal component of this event.

Purpose and Importance of the Global Stocktake:

  • The Global Stocktake serves as an evaluation mechanism to gauge the progress made by countries in combating global warming.
  • This assessment holds significant importance as it determines the efficacy of measures taken under the Paris Agreement.
  • It identifies areas requiring more robust action, whether through stricter national policies, ambitious goals, or facilitating transitions to clean energy in developing nations.

Objectives and Framework of the Paris Agreement:

  • The Paris Agreement of COP21 in 2015 marked a turning point in global climate action, necessitating all countries to commit to emissions reduction targets and adapt to climate change impacts.
  • This commitment, known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), mandates periodic assessments of progress every five years.
  • The Agreement aims to limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius from pre-industrial levels, striving to cap it at 1.5 degrees Celsius to mitigate severe climate change impacts.

First Global Stocktake Report:

  • A significant milestone in this process was the publication of the UN’s technical report on the first Global Stocktake in September 2023.
  • The report highlighted some progress but emphasized that the collective action taken was insufficient.
  • It called for an accelerated pace of implementation across all sectors and urged an inclusive approach involving society to meet the Paris Agreement’s goals and address the climate crisis.

Challenges and Urgency for Action:

  • The report indicated a rise in global temperatures by approximately 1.2 degrees Celsius since pre-industrial times, underscoring the urgency for more robust efforts to curb climate change.
  • While acknowledging progress, it also highlighted existing gaps and the need for innovative solutions and increased efforts to bridge these gaps.
  • The urgency to accelerate implementation, foster greater action, and provide support to meet the Paris Agreement’s objectives was emphasized.


  • As COP28 unfolded in Dubai, the Global Stocktake becomes a focal point for assessing the global community’s efforts in combating climate change.
  • It emphasized the critical need for heightened ambition, collective action, and innovative strategies to combat climate change effectively.
  • The outcomes of this evaluation will guide nations toward charting a more sustainable and resilient future in mitigating the impacts of climate change.


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