March 1, 2024

Lukmaan IAS

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EU’S HISTORIC ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LEGISLATION

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TAG: GS 2: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

THE CONTEXT: The European Union (EU) recently reached a landmark provisional agreement on comprehensive laws to regulate the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI).

EXPLANATION:

  • This groundbreaking legislation positions the EU as the first continent to establish clear regulations governing AI technologies.
  • The proposed AI Act is anticipated to undergo a vote in the European Parliament and is slated for implementation by 2025.

Significance of EU’s Framework in the Global AI Landscape

  • Amidst the ongoing pursuits of the US, UK, and China to establish their AI regulatory frameworks, the EU’s legislation assumes considerable significance.
  • It encompasses several safeguards regulating AI use, including guidelines for law enforcement adoption and provisions empowering consumers to file complaints regarding potential violations.

Key Components of the EU AI Legislation

  • Safeguards and Restrictions:
    • The legislation features stringent restrictions on facial recognition technology and the use of AI for manipulating human behaviour.
    • Moreover, governments can only deploy real-time biometric surveillance in public areas during severe threats like terrorist activities.
  • Risk-Based Classification:
    • AI applications are categorized broadly into four risk classes.
    • High-risk applications like AI in self-driving cars are allowed but subject to certification and open disclosure of underlying techniques.
    • Medium-risk applications, such as AI chatbots, require detailed documentation and transparency for user interactions.
  • Empowerment for EU’s Tech Leadership:
    • European Commissioner views the legislation as a platform for EU startups and researchers to lead the global AI race.
    • It emphasizes trust-building through technology that prioritizes people’s safety and rights.

EU vs. US Approaches to AI Regulation

  • EU’s Regulatory Leadership:
    • Over the past decade, the EU has been at the forefront of tech regulation with laws like GDPR, DSA, and DMA, focusing on privacy, curbing tech dominance, and protecting users.
    • The AI legislation further solidifies its stance on safeguarding individual rights.
  • US Initiatives:
    • While the US has not passed significant tech-related legislations, recent moves like the White House Executive Order on AI and the proposed AI Bill of Rights showcase efforts to provide a regulatory framework.
    • However, these actions come after a prolonged absence of major tech regulations.

Global Impact and Diverse Approaches to AI Policy

  • Diverse Responses to Generative AI:
    • Policymakers globally are scrutinizing generative AI tools, addressing concerns related to privacy, bias, and intellectual property rights.
    • The responses vary across regions, with the EU taking a stringent stance based on the nature of AI use cases, while the UK adopts a more innovation-friendly approach.
    • The US and China also offer their distinct regulations on AI.
  • India’s Approach:
    • India aims to develop its sovereign AI infrastructure, emphasizing Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) models.
    • This approach focuses on leveraging technology for governance solutions, targeting sectors like healthcare, agriculture, and language translation to drive economic development.

Conclusion: Global Perspectives on AI Regulation

  • The EU’s groundbreaking AI legislation sets a precedent in regulating AI technologies, emphasizing safeguards, risk-based classification, and consumer empowerment.
  • Amidst varying approaches worldwide, from stringent regulations to innovation-friendly policies, the global AI landscape is witnessing a pivotal moment as nations navigate the complex challenges and opportunities presented by AI advancements.

SOURCE: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-sci-tech/eu-worlds-first-law-regulating-ai-9062105/

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