December 7, 2023

Lukmaan IAS

A Blog for IAS Examination






THE CONTEXT: While Khajuraho is internationally recognized for its rich architectural grandeur of the Western Group of temples that UNESCO recognizes as world heritage, the districts of Chhatarpur and Panna have lesser-known destinations that can serve as model local tourist destinations.


About Khajuraho Temple

  • The Temples of Khajuraho are a magnificent example of the Nagara style of temples as the temples consist of
  • a sanctum,
  • a narrow ante-chamber (antarala),
  • a transept (mahamandapa),
  • additional halls (ardha mandapa),
  • a mandapa or nave and
  • an ambulatory passage (Pradakshina-path) which is lighted by large windows.
  • These are a collection of Hindu and Jain temples located in Madhya Pradesh.
  • They are known for its ornate temples, was built by the Chandela rulers between 900 CE to 1130 CE.
  • These are located in the Vindhya Mountain range.
  • They  got the status of UNESCO’s World Heritage Site in 1986.
  • Erotic imagery is very common in the Temples of Khajuraho.
  • Sculptures of celestial nymphs with broad hips, heavy breasts and languishing eyes are commonly found in the Kandariya Mahadeva and Vishwanath Temple. These sculptures are believed to reflect the idea of female beauty and fertility.
  • Other scenes depicted on the walls of the temples are a part of the Narathara (the human life cycle) signifying how sexual procreation and kama are an essential aspect of human life.
  • The major focus of the study of the Temples of Khajuraho have been on the sculptures.
  • The walls of these temples have some of the best sculptures of the time, making Khajuraho a representation of excellent artistic features.
  • It is believed that the temples constitute five different sets of sculptures:
  • cult images
  • the parivara, parsva and avarana devatas
  • the apsaras and the surasundaris
  • secular sculptures of miscellaneous themes (dancers, musicians, disciples and domestic scenes)
  • mythical creatures (vyalas, sardula and other animals)
  • The first mention of Khajuraho and its temples is in the accounts of Abu Rayhan al Biruni( 1022 CE) and Ibn Battuta (1335 CE).
  • The carvings on them reflect the four goals of life in Hinduism, viz, dharma, kama, artha, moksha.
  • One theory posits their construction can be understood as a part of the proliferation of the Siva-Sakti cult. The other theory is that the temples are a representation of the devadasis who were once a major part of the temple activities.
  • The Temples of Khajuraho are divided into three groups, the Western Group, the Eastern Group and the Southern Group.

The Western Group:

  • Chausath Yogini Temple-this temple stands on the low rocky eminence to the south west of the Sib-Sagar
  • Kandariya Mahadeva Temple– Largest of all the temples in Khajuraho, it dates back to the 10th century CE.
  • Devi Jagdamba Temple -this temple is now known by the name of Devi Jagdamba or the ‘Mother Goddess of the World’.
  • Chitragupta or Bharat ji’s Temple -This temple is dedicated to the Sun God (Surya), an image of the Sun God is enshrined within the sanctum, wearing high boots and driving a chariot of seven horses.
  • Vishwanath Temple – Vishwanath, or the ‘Lord of the Universe’, is another name for Lord Shiva to whom this temple is dedicated.
  • Laxmana Temple -also known as the Chaturbhuj Temple.
  • It is popularly known for its innovation in the technique of architecture.

The Eastern Group:

  • Brahma Temple -situated on the banks of Khajuraho Sagar.
  • Vamana Temple -situated on the north-east side of the Brahma Temple
  • Ghantai Temple -this temple got its name from the bells suspended on chains which adorn the pillars of its portico.
  • Parshwanath Jain Temple – it is the largest of the Jaina temples. It is believed to be a shrine of Parshwanath, the 22nd Jain Tirthankara.

The Southern Group:

  • Duladeo Temple – It is about a mile and a half away from the main Khajuraho Temples and was originally dedicated to the Siva
  • Jatkari or Chaturbhuja Temple -situated near the Jatkari village, this temple faces west. It is dedicated to Lord Vishnu.

About Chandela Dynasty:

  • The Chandela Empire ruled central India from the tenth to the fourteenth centuries.
  • Chandela were well known for their interest in art and architecture.
  • Although followers of Shaivism, the Chandela were also said to have been inclined towards Vaishnavism and Jainism as well.

About Panna Biosphere :

  • The Panna Biosphere is located in the Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh.
  • It  is situated in the Vindhya Mountain range in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh
  • Ken River, a tributary of the Yamuna River, flows through the reserve.
  • The ken-Betwa river interlinking project will be located within the tiger reserve.
  • The region is also famous for Panna diamond mining.
  • The Panna National Park got the status of  India’s 22nd tiger reserve in 1994.
  • In 2011, it was notified as a Biosphere Reserve by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
  • Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers in the country followed by Karnataka and Uttarakhand.




THE CONTEXT: Brazil is the largest beef exporter in the world. And China is one of the largest beef consumers in the world. Brazil recently suspended its beef exports to China due to mad cow disease. The disease is also called Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.


What is Mad Cow Disease?

  • It is incurable. The disease occurs due to an infection in a protein called a prion.
  • The disease spreads when cows consume the meat of the cattle that are already infected with the disease.
  • It is a fat neurodegenerative disease, meaning affects brain cells
  • Symptoms of the disease include weight loss, trouble walking, etc.
  • It has a long incubation period and therefore very difficult to identify. The incubation period is the time between the infection and the occurrence of the first symptom.
  • The outbreak of the disease occurred in the US, China, Egypt, Hong Kong, Chile, UAE, etc.

What will China do now?

  • The Chinese may look for alternatives. They will probably turn to Australia, Japan or Korea. The relations between Australia and China were not too good in recent times. Australian government ordered the removal of all the Chinese-made cameras in public offices. Maybe, this is an opportunity for the countries to reconcile. However, China may have to pay the extra price as the situation is in favour of Australia.




THE CONTEXT:China and Japan held a security dialogue for the first time in four years. It was held in Tokyo. During the meeting, the countries agreed to strengthen their security relations and communication. They will work to gain mutual trust. Also, they agreed to bring upon a framework of maritime and air liaison.


Why is China being nice all of a sudden?

  • If you notice, China recently held the WMCC meeting with India on withdrawing troops in the borer. China is planning on holding talks with Australia.
  • China has been changing its tone of business in recent days, that is, 30-40 days. This is because the economy of the country is becoming more and more fragile. And with the dependent population increasing and the working population decreasing in the country because of its birth control policies, China will face a big setback in its economic growth coming days. These predictions are being repeated by the IMF and World Bank only to remind world business investors about the Chinese state!
  • Right now China is facing a lack of promising jobs for the youth in the country, the property market is declining, the growth rate has been the slowest in a decade, consumer confidence has become zero due to cheap low-quality products, etc.

China’s policy change

  • China was a pro-business market for quite some time in the past. Meaning, the capitalists were given preference. But lately, the Chinese Communist Party’s (the ruling government) goals are prioritized over business interests. The case of Jack Ma is the best example of the Chinese policy shift.

What is China-Japan issues?

  • The dispute between the countries is over the Senkaku islands. The islands is being administered by Japan since 1972. However, the legal status of the islands is still disputed. After the world war, II Japan gave up its claims over several parts of the world. In 1951, Japan gave up Taiwan under the Treaty of San Francisco. The Senkaku islands are near Taiwan. And according to Japan, the islands belong to the country under the US Trusteeship treaty signed in 1971.
  • China did not raise any issues when Japan signed the San Francisco agreement. In 1969, oil reserves were found in the Senkaku islands. Since the discovery of oil reserves, China is making the claim on the island.
  • Of all this, China has now entered Ukraine war talk backing Russia.




THE CONTEXT: Recently, after objections, ICHR stopped singing the daily national anthem, and removed the images of Bharat Mata and DeenDayal Upadhyaya.



  • The Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Education, Government of India.
  • It was established by the Ministry of Education & Social Welfare, Govt. of India (now, Ministry of Education) in 1972.
  • ICHR was registered under the Societies Registration Act (Act xxi of 1860), an Act for the registration of Literary, Scientific and Charitable Societies in India.
  • The primary aim and objective of the Indian Council of Historical Research are to promote and give directions to historical research and to encourage and foster objective and scientific writing of history.

Some of the objectives of the Council:

  • To foster objective and scientific writing of history such as to inculcate an informed appreciation of the country’s national and cultural heritage;
  • To review the progress of historical research from time to time.
  • To advise the Government of India on all such matters pertaining to historical research and training in history methodology as may be referred to it from time to time.
  • To sponsor historical research programmes.
  • To provide technical assistance for the formulation of historical research programmes by individuals or institutions.
  • To promote publications of historical research of a high standard
  • Generally, take all such measures as may be found necessary from time to time to promote historical research and its utilization in the country.


  • To provide fellowships and financial assistance to young teachers in colleges, universities and registered research organizations,
  • To publish a biannual Journal – the Indian Historical Review, and another journal Itihas in Hindi.
  • To maintain a large and expanding Library-cum-Documentation Centre with facilities of DELNET and J-STOR.
  • To maintain two regional centres namely ICHR North-East Regional Centre (Guwahati) and ICHR Southern Regional Centre (Bangalore).



THE CONTEXT: Recently, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India , has been selected as External Auditor of the International Labour Organization in Geneva for a four-year term from 2024 to 2027.


About CAG:

  • CAG is an independent authority under the Constitution of India.
  • The Constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) in chapter V under Part V.
  • He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department.
  • He is the guardian of the public purse.
  • He acts as a guide, friend and philosopher of the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament.
  • Incumbent CAG of India: Shri Girish Chandra Murmu.

Constitutional Provisions regarding the CAG:

  • Article 148–151 , in  Part V of the constitution of India deals with the appointment, oath and conditions of service ,Duties and Powers of CAG.
  • Article 279 – The calculation of “net proceeds” is ascertained and certified by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, whose certificate is final.
  • Third Schedule – Section IV of the Third Schedule of the Constitution of India prescribes the form of oath or affirmation to be made by the Judges of the Supreme Court and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India at the time of assumption of office.
  • Sixth Schedule– According to this schedule, the District Council or Regional Council should be kept in such form as the CAG prescribes with the approval of the President.
  • In addition, these bodies’ accounts are audited in such manner as CAG may think fit, and the reports relating to such accounts shall be submitted to the Governor who shall cause them to be laid before the Council.

About International Labour Organization (ILO):

  • It was established by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
  • It is the only tripartite N. agency. It brings together governments, employers and workers.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1969

The eight-core conventions of the ILO are:

  • Forced Labour Convention (No. 29)
  • Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (No.105)
  • Equal Remuneration Convention (No.100)
  • Discrimination (Employment Occupation) Convention (No.111)
  • Minimum Age Convention (No.138)
  • Worst forms of Child Labour Convention (No.182)
  • Freedom of Association and Protection of Right to Organised Convention (No.87)
  • Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention (No.98)
  • India is a founding member of the ILO
  • India has ratified six out of the eight-core/fundamental ILO conventions. These conventions are:
    • Forced Labour Convention (No. 29)
    • Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (No.105)
    • Equal Remuneration Convention (No.100)
    • Discrimination (Employment Occupation) Convention (No.111)
    • Minimum Age Convention (No.138)
    • Worst forms of Child Labour Convention (No.182)

Key reports by ILO :

  • World Employment and Social Outlook.
  • Global Wage Report.
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