December 3, 2023

Lukmaan IAS

A Blog for IAS Examination



THE CONTEXT: Recently, a deepfake video of actor Rashmika Mandanna went viral on X, formerly Twitter, and multiple other social media platforms.


  • Deepfakes are fake videos and images of people created using artificial intelligence by swapping faces or altering voices.
  • Deepfakes use two algorithms :
    • Generator and a discriminator


  • The technology involves modifying or creating images and videos using a machine learning technique called generative adversarial network (GAN). The AI-driven software detects and learns the subjects’ movements and facial expressions from the source material and then duplicates these in another video or image.
  • To ensure that the deepfake created is as close to real as possible, creators use a large database of source images. This is why more deepfake videos are created of public figures, celebrities and politicians.
  • The dataset is then used by one software to create a fake video, while second software is used to detect signs of forgery in it. Through the collaborative work of the two software, the fake video is rendered until the second software package can no longer detect the forgery. This is known as “unsupervised learning”, when machine-language models teach themselves. The method makes it difficult for other software to identify deepfakes.


  • Accessibility: Artificial intelligence can create tools that can hear, see, and, soon, reason with increasing accuracy.
  • Education: Deepfakes can assist a teacher in delivering engaging lessons.
  • Art: It has the potential to democratize expensive VFX technology. It can also become a powerful tool for independent storytellers at a fraction of the cost.
  • Autonomy & Expression: Human rights activists and journalists can use synthetic media to remain anonymous in dictatorial and oppressive regimes.
  • Digital Reconstruction & Public Safety: Artificial intelligence-generated synthetic media can aid in the reconstruction of a crime scene.
  • Innovation: In many industries, data and AI are assisting with digital transformation and automation.


  • India’s IT Rules, 2021 require that all content reported to be fake or produced using deep fake be taken down by intermediary platforms within 36 hours.
  • Since the deepfake videos of Rashmika Mandanna went viral, the Indian IT ministry has also issued notices to social media platforms stating that impersonating online was illegal under Section 66D of the Information Technology Act of 2000.
  • The IT Rules, 2021, also prohibit hosting any content that impersonates another person and requires social media firms to take down artificially morphed images when alerted.


  • According to research by IT for Change, in India, one-third of the women surveyed reported that they had faced harassment, abuse, or unwanted behaviour online and two-fifths were aware of other women in their circles who had similar experiences.
  • Deepfakes can be used to spread hate speech, incite violence, or cast doubt on democratic processes.
  • Deepfake can depict a person as indulging in antisocial behaviours and saying vile things that they never did.
  • Deepfake could act as a powerful tool by a malicious nation-state to undermine public safety and create uncertainty and chaos in the target country.
  • Deepfakes can be used by non-state actors, such as insurgent groups and terrorist organisations, to show their adversaries as making inflammatory speeches or engaging in provocative actions to stir anti-state sentiments among people.
  • Another concern from deepfakes is the liar’s dividend; an undesirable truth is dismissed as deepfake or fake news. The mere existence of deepfakes gives more credibility to denials. Leaders may weaponize deepfakes and use fake news and alternative-facts narrative to dismiss an actual piece of media and truth.


  • Social media: Social media have to develop accessible technology to detect deepfakes.
  • Regulation and Legislation: We also need meaningful regulations with a collaborative discussion with the technology industry, civil society, and policymakers to develop legislative solutions to disincentivizing the creation and distribution of malicious deepfakes.
  • Role of media: Media literacy efforts must be enhanced to cultivate a discerning public. Media literacy for consumers is the most effective tool to combat disinformation and deepfakes.
  • Public awareness: Public must take the responsibility to be critical consumers of media on the Internet. Public must be made aware of think and pause principle for social media.


Deepfake AI technology presents fascinating possibilities for creative expression and entertainment, its potential misuse raises ethical concerns. Striking a balance between innovation and responsible use, along with robust regulation and public awareness, is crucial to navigate the evolving landscape of deepfake technology.


Q) Introduce the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI). How does Al help clinical diagnosis? Do you perceive any threat to privacy of the individual in the use of Al in healthcare? (2023)


Q) What are the Deepfakes? Discuss the challenges posed by Deepfakes and suggest solutions to counter the menace of Deepfakes.

SOURCE: Rashmika Mandanna deepfake: Are we protecting vulnerable users online? | The Indian Express

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