December 9, 2023

Lukmaan IAS

A Blog for IAS Examination



THE CONTEXT: The crisis in Ukraine continues unabated even as new conflict has flared up in West Asia. Traditional and non-traditional security threats are interlocked and global deficits in peace, development, security and governance are growing.


  • China and India share common thoughts on the future and destiny of mankind.
  • The Chinese people have cherished the vision of “a world of fairness and justice for the common good” since ancient times.
  • In the 1950s, China and India jointly initiated the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. which has turned into basic norms governing international relations.
  • The Chinese people have cherished the vision of “a world of fairness and justice for the common good” since ancient times.
  • The Silk Route played a significant role in the cultural exchange between India and other countries, as it facilitated the exchange of ideas, religions, and artistic styles. Buddhism, for instance, spread to Central Asia and China through the Silk Route.
  • India exported 4,459 commodities to China in FY23. Major exported items from India to China include petroleum products, marine products, organic chemicals.
  • India imported 7,484 commodities from China in FY23. Major items imported from China include electronic components, followed by computer hardware and peripherals, telecom instruments, organic chemicals and machinery for dairy.
  • India is the biggest borrower in NDB, with 19 projects approved with a commitment of US$ 6.92 billion as of August 31, 2022.New Development Bank (NDB), which has established its office in Shanghai, opened its India Regional Office in Gujarat International Finance Tec-City in June 2022.


 Border disputes: Border disputes between the two countries have existed since many years, and remain unresolved. While several territorial land pockets (14 divisions) along the 3488-km-long border, (Line of Actual Control) have come under dispute, the two main unresolved issues remain Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh.

Border Incursions: An immediate fallout of the several unresolved territorial claims by both nations, border incursions/intrusions have been a major stumbling block to improving relations between India and China.

Tibet: At the very heart of India’s relations with China is the unresolved issue of Tibet. In 1950, Chinese troops invaded Tibet to reclaim and re-assert its sovereignty (Tibet declared independence from China in 1913) over the region, which was confirmed after both parties signed the Seventeen Point Agreement.

String of pearls: It involves the development of commercial ports in various countries as part of its new “Silk Route”. The route, which China claims as an important trade corridor, extends from its naval base in Hainan Island (South China Sea) to Bagamayo in Tanzania, Africa, with several of the ports encircling mainland India. These include Hambantota (Sri Lanka), Gwadar (Pakistan), Chittagong (Bangladesh) and Marao Atoll (Maldives).

Water Dispute: While China is already involved in several water-sharing disputes with countries like Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam over the Mekong River, its plans to build several dams on the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra (known as Tsangpo in China) hasn’t gone down well with New Delhi. The Brahmaputra, which originates as Tsangpo in Tibet, is one of the major water resources in India’s north-east, especially as a source for irrigation and industry.


  • With a third of the global population, China and India are natural partners in building a global community of a shared future.
  • China and India could jointly work hand in hand with global development, security an civilisation initiatives to demonstrate the common will and resolution of the Global South countries.
  • Practice true multilateralism.
  • A balanced trade and economic relationship between India and China can serve as a strong foundation for future relations.China needs India as a trade partner for increasing its GDP and it cannot afford to lose that since this would witness a great fall in the GDP of the country.
  • The border dispute that has proved to be the root cause of this conflict needs to be clarified between the two nations.
  • Lastly, apart from the political, economic, geographical and military solutions, there should be sharing of the cultures of the countries with each other.


The two nations have the responsibility, the ability and the opportunity to chart the path for the world with Oriental wisdom.


Q) Critically examine the aims and objectives of SCO. What importance does it hold for India? (2021)


Q) “China and India share common thoughts on the future and destiny of mankind”. Discuss in the context of recent developments.


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